Взаимное проникновение каналов у усилителя и сопротивление наушников

       

Взаимное проникновение каналов у усилителя и сопротивление наушников Делать измерения взаимного проникновения каналов мысль была еще давно, но задерживалось обновление стенда для соответствующих измерений. Создание математической модели без практических измерений большого смысла не имеет по той причине, что такая модель является большим упрощением и можно перейти ту черту, когда очередное упрощение схемы приведет к неадекватному результату.
Обычно измерение для параметра взаимного проникновения каналов проводятся без нагрузки и данные выглядят хорошо. Максимум, при плохой реализации разъемов в области высоких частот можно наблюдать ухудшение параметров.

Что же происходит, когда подключается нагрузка? Если посмотреть на измерения, выложенные в Mycroft при измерениях на TEKTRONIX AM700, то при нагрузке в 150 Ом у большинства испытуемых взаимное проникновение каналов находится на стабильном уровне в 50 дБ.

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Повторение теста с нагрузкой через RMAA и E-MU1616m на подопытном HiFiMan HM 901/802 с балансным модулем в нормальном режиме показал аналогичный результат.
Можно видеть, что при подключении нагрузки, параметр ухудшается.
  • Без нагрузки = 83.7 дБ
  • С нагрузкой в 270 Ом = 53.3 дБ
  • С нагрузкой в 120 Ом = 45.9 дБ
Занятные цифры, не так ли?

Ниже представлена модель, которой еще предстоит пройти на соответствие с реальными подробными измерениями. Если в 15-20 измерениях данные совпадут, то возможно, что можно будет отказаться от измерений на 10-ти разных нагрузках и ограничится например только двумя, сгенерировав все остальные, что в свою очередь упростит тест, т.к. сложные и трудоемкие тесты часто нежизнеспособны.

В упрощенной теории обычно рассматривается один канал.

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Который представляется в виде электрической схемы как батарейка и два сопротивления.

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Сопротивление Rv – внутреннее сопротивление усилителя, а Rn – сопротивление нагрузки, т.е. одного канала наушников.

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Более сложная модель, это разделение сопротивления Rv на два, размещая их как на «плюсовом» проводе, так и «минусовом». Сумма Rv1 и Rv2 равна исходному Rv. При расчетах характеристик одного канала такое разделение совершенно излишне, но это ключевой момент при расчетах двух каналов с характеристикой взаимного проникновения каналов.

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В левой части мы видим схему идеального усилителя, где взаимного проникновения каналов нет вообще. А вот в правой части Rv2 существенно влияет на этот параметр.

Посмотрим на основные зависимости.
 
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В примере график для усилителя с полным выходным сопротивлением в 2 Ом.

По вертикали указано взаимное проникновение каналов в дБ. По горизонтали отношение Rv1 к полному Rv. Например цифра 0,7 показывает, что Rv1=1.4 Ом (плюсовой контакт), а Rv2=0.6 Ом (минусовой/общий). Ближе к единице Rv2 стремится к нулю, а ближе к 0, стремится к нулю уже Rv1.

От 1 до 0,95 происходит существенное падение параметра взаимного проникновения каналов, и для усилителя с сопротивлением близким к нулевому это представляет проблему, ведь коннекторы могут отбирать до 0,5 Ом, а это значит, что если усилитель идеальный с коэф. 1, то при сопротивлении в 2 Ом мы получаем итоговые 3 Ом (2 контакта по 0,5 Ом к 2 Ом) и коэф. уже становится 0,83… И для наушников с сопротивлением в 16 Ом получаем просадку из 205 дБ в 31 дБ.

А вот идеальный усилитель с сопротивлением в 20 Ом в таких же условиях даст коэф. 0,97 и взаимное проникновение каналов на уровне 35 дБ. Вот и вопрос, действительно ли усилители с нулевым сопротивлением самые лучшие во всем? И это хорошая тема подумать о звучании кабеля для наушников и реальных факторов, влияющих на звук.

Но если не учитывать кабеля и коннекторы, а рассматривать только усилитель как черный ящик, то можно видеть несколько закономерностей из графика выше.
  • Уже незначительный номинал сопротивления на «общем проводе» существенно снижает параметр взаимного проникновения каналов (примерно до 0,98).
  • Чем ниже сопротивление нагрузки – тем хуже параметр взаимного проникновения каналов. Своего рода секрет хорошего звучания высокоомных наушников!


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Этот график показывает с другой стороны взаимосвязь между сопротивлением наушников (шкала по горизонтали) и взаимным проникновением каналов (по вертикали).



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То, что показано в дополнительных графиках, отображено на графике ниже, а именно, как влияет полное сопротивление усилителя на взаимное проникновение каналов.
 
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По горизонтали сопротивление, в вертикали - взаимное проникновение каналов.

Очевидная зависимость:
  • Чем выше сопротивление усилителя, тем хуже параметр взаимного проникновения каналов.


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Совпадет ли теория с практикой? Пока что сделан первый пробный замер усилителя Balanced Card в режиме Normal. Для большей точности в формулах расчета параметров учитывается и сопротивление входов E-MU 1616m.
  • Без нагрузки = 83.7 дБ
  • С нагрузкой в 270 Ом = 53.3 дБ
  • С нагрузкой в 120 Ом = 45.9 дБ
Это соответствует теоретическому усилителю с коэф. 0,7 с параметрами:
  • Без нагрузки = 84.5 дБ
  • С нагрузкой в 270 Ом = 53.04 дБ
  • С нагрузкой в 120 Ом = 46.2 дБ
Зная полное сопротивление в 2 Ом и коэффициент в 0.7 можно высчитать взаимное проникновение каналов для любого значения нагрузки.

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Вот таким получается график зависимости взаимного проникновения каналов от нагрузки для HiFiMan HM 901/802 с Balanced Card в режиме Normal по теоретической модели.

Тем не менее, это пока теория, которая подтвердится, опровергнется или отправится на доработку лишь после измерения 15-20 усилителей.

Любопытными на данный момент остаются следующие вопросы:
  • В рекламных проспектах балансные усилители не содержат общего провода и обещают лучшее разделение каналов, так ли это?
  • Каково влияние кабеля? Какое оптимальное сопротивление усилителя под кабель и наоборот? Можно ли что-то скомпенсировать?


Автор: (PAExpert) Эксперт Personalaudio.ru
26.02.2014


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