Технические стенды для измерений наушников

       

Технические стенды для измерений наушников

О измерениях наушников


В отличии от акустических систем, измерения наушников более сложны и по сей день разрабатываются новые способы измерений, позволяющие получить наиболее удачные и субъективно приближенные к реальности графики.

С базовыми графиками АС все проще, благодаря современному ПО, часть графиков можно измерить даже без специального помещения в виде безэховой камеры, т.е. нужно лишь ПО и измерительный микрофон. Для измерений же наушников нужен специальный стенд.

Текущие стандарты для измерений наушников, это ГОСТ 28728-89 (на замену МЭК 268-7 84 от 1984 года) - "Наушники стереофонические - методы измерений", принятый в нашей стране для измерения наушников еще в 1989 году. Наиболее современным международным стандартом является IEC 60268-7 "Sound system equipment - Part 7: Headphones and earphones (Оборудование звуковых систем. Часть 7: Головные телефоны и наушники)". Этот стандарт постоянно обновляется.

Основное назначение таких стандартов, это получение наиболее адекватной информации для конечного потребителя. Разработка наиболее удачного оборудования для измерений ведется до сих пор. По этой причине при тестировании наушников в разных условиях и по разным стандартам получаются зачастую несопоставимые данные, а условия измерений производители крайне редко приводят.

Стенд по стандарту ГОСТ 28728-89


В ГОСТ 28728-89 рекомендуется использовать специальное "искусственное ухо"

Стенд для измерения наушников по стандарту ГОСТ 28728-89


Основной особенностью является наличие эквивалентного полного акустического сопротивления, аналогичного уху человека. Это позволяет получать более точные данные по сравнению с плоским стендом. Тем не менее, получить АЧХ близкую к субъективной через такую камеру затруднительно. Через такую камеру проводят измерения на отклонения АЧХ между наушниками, искажения и другие параметры на заводах. Т.е. существует некая паспортная АЧХ на наушники, слабо связанная с субъективным восприятием и по ней определяют отклонения. Чем ниже класс наушников, тем соответственно допуск на разброс параметров выше.

Стенд по стандарту IEC 60268-7


По стандарту IEC 60268-7 рекомендуется использовать искусственное ухо, более близкое по форме к уху человека. Предлагается усредненный вариант.

Стенд для измерения наушников по стандарту IEC 60268-7


Основной плюс очевиден, стенд наиболее близок по форме человеческого уха и соответственно дает значения, более близкие к субъективному восприятию. Однако в следствии того, что форма ушной раковины и ушного канала у разных людей разная, то и результаты получаются относительными. Второй особенностью является более высокая стоимость стенда и с точки зрения производства экономически не оправданной, т.к. основное отличие - это вид получаемой АЧХ и уровень SPL значения. Стоимость такого стенда начинается от $10000, и при этом все равно, получаемые АЧХ далеко не всегда согласовываются с субъективным восприятием. Ведущие ученые до сих пор не пришли к единому мнению, где должен располагаться микрофон, у барабанной перепонки или у входа в слуховой канал. Минусами такого стенда является невозможность делать некоторые измерения – например точное отклонение АЧХ правого и левого канала из-за свободного расположения наушников на стенде.

В производстве достаточно делать контроль на отклонения от референсных АЧХ, и тут оправданным является использовать индивидуальные стенды под необходимую измеряемую величину, это и дешевле и более эффективно в производстве.

В большинстве стран нет жестких стандартов на технические характеристики, а это значит, что можно использовать лишь производственное оборудование в своих целях и при желании ничего не писать на упаковке.

В рекомендуемых стандартах описываются действия и условия измерений, со сноской, что каждый вправе делать измерения в других условиях, и отдельно об этом указывать. К сожалению, большинство производителей не указываю ни стандарта, ни условий измерений. Обычно данные касающиеся АЧХ, чувствительности и искажений являются несопоставимыми между разными производителями наушников, а порой и у одного производителя разных линеек. Это нормальное явление, обусловленное использованием разных стендов.

Единственным способом ориентироваться на технические параметры, это делать оценку между АЧХ наушников, сделанных в идентичных условиях. Стендов для измерений существует несколько типов.

Основные стенды для измерений наушников (производственного типа)

Плоский измерительный стенд для наушников


Самый простой тип измерительного стенда – плоский стенд. Обычно, это доска с отверстием под измерительный микрофон. Такой стенд прост в изготовлении и энтузиасты обычно используют именно его.

К недостатками стенда можно отнести разброс общих конструктивных особенностей, в виде ширины стенда. Кто-то делает стенд шириной с голову человека для естественного прижима наушников, а кто-то вручную прижимает наушник к плоскости стенда, нарушая тем самым естественный прижим.

Поверхность стенда как правило более жесткая, чем человеческий кожный покров, что служит источником более усиленной отдачи низких частот на графиках. При этом, если форма амбушюр у наушников не ровная, и при посадке возникают воздушные зазоры, то низкие частоты наоборот на графике получаются ослаблены.

Мягкий плоский измерительный стенд для наушников


Мягкий плоский измерительный стенд для наушников

Такой тип стенда используется при измерениях наушников на personalaudio. Стенд повторяет по своей конструкции обычный плоский стенд с шириной, сопоставимой с человеческой головой, но при этом поверхность стенда аналогична мягкости кожного покрова человека. Это позволяет избежать избытка баса в области низких частот, а так же обеспечить плотную посадку неровных амбушюр. Благодаря специальным меткам, наушники можно точно располагать относительно микрофона и тем самым сравнивать расхождение АЧХ между каналами. В условных обозначениях на графиках стенд называется как SF1 (Soft Flat Stand V1).

Манекен с ушными раковинами


Манекен с ушными раковинами для измерения наушников

Этот тип стенда приближен к стенду по стандарту IEC 60268-7 и использует микрофоны у входа в слуховой канал. Данный тип стенда позволяет расположить наушники в максимально естественной посадке и более точно получить частотный диапазон в области верхних средних и высоких частот за счет переотражений от ушных раковин и более точной посадке наушников относительно микрофона. В технических отчетах стенд фигурирует под названием HDM1 (HeadManeken V1).

Как и обычный плоский стенд, поверхность относительно твердая и количество низких частот может быть несколько выше. Слабой стороной стенда являются твердые ушные раковины, из-за которых амбушюры накладных наушников и полноразмерных с неглубокой посадкой не плотно прилегают к стенду и соответственно на графиках возникает утечка низких частот. По этой причине в измерениях используется два типа стенда – HDM1 и SF1, где на HDM1 смотрим среднечастотный и высокочастотный диапазон, а на SF1 – низкочастотный диапазон.

Стенд с широкомембранным микрофоном


При использовании микрофона малого диаметра в 2-3 мм, микрофон становится точечным по сравнению с близкорасположенной мембраной наушников. Это приводит к интерференции звукового поля и на графиках АЧХ наблюдаются узкополосные провалы. Так же при сравнении двух каналов, при незначительном повороте наушников со сложным профилем защитной решетки узкополосные провалы меняются и тем самым затрудняют диагностику сравнения идентичности каналов. Для таких задач в качестве микрофона используется мембрана большего диаметра (динамического типа). Такой динамический микрофон редко имеет ровную АЧХ, поэтому не используется в обычном плоском стенде, а в стенде манекене для него нет места. Такой тип стенда на данный момент готовится для оценки различия каналов у наушников. До этого момента данные по разбросу параметров берутся от мягкого плоского стенда, обладающего несколько большей погрешностью.

Стенд-втулка для измерений внутриканальных наушников


Стенд-втулка для измерений внутриканальных наушников на фоне RAA

Для измерений наушников затычек используются отдельная втулка. Глубина расположения микрофона внутри втулки составляет 22 мм, что соответствует длине ушного канала и согласуется с рекомендуемой глубиной ушного канала искусственного уха по IEC 60268-7. На графиках стенд обозначается как CIEF.

Программное обеспечение

RightMark Audio Analyzer (RMAA)


Программа RightMark Audio Analyzer (RMAA)


Сегодня, благодаря доступности различного программного обеспечения и относительно недорогих микрофонов, с помощью компьютера не сложно сделать измерения. Наиболее популярной программой является бесплатная версия RMAA (RightMark Audio Analyzer) с максимально дружелюбным и удобным интерфейсом.

Основные достоинства


Простота интерфейса и бесплатность

Основные недостатки


В текущей версии мало типов тестов для акустических измерений, нельзя измерять чувствительность наушников, для измерений используются длительные по времени тесты, низкая защищенность от внешнего шума во время теста.

ARTA

Программа ARTA


Второй по популярности является ARTA, с более широкими возможностями для акустических измерений, но с более сложным в управлении интерфейсом.

Основные преимущества


Есть полные набор тестов для акустических измерений, большинство тестов адаптированы именно к акустическим измерениям – тесты короткие и внешний шум помещения мало влияет на результат при измерениях на небольшой громкости.

Основные недостатки


Сложный интерфейс, графики рисуются неприглядно.

Reference Audio Analyzer (RAA)

Программа для измерения наушников Reference Audio Analyzer (RAA)


Это отдельный софт, разработанный специально для анализа и построения наглядных графиков под проект personalaudio. На текущий момент софт не предоставляется для использования за пределами проекта.

Достоинства


RAA импортирует данные в CSV формате и по ним может делать промежуточные вичисления и формировать графически и текстовые отчеты. В частности страницы раздела отчетов генерируются через RAA. Софт способен строить уникальные графики совместимости наушников и усилителей.

Недостатки


Софт не представлен для широкого использования, нет ни бесплатной, ни коммерческой версии.

Дополнительное оборудование

Помимо компьютера со звуковой картой и программы, нужен специальный измерительный микрофон, имеющий ровную АЧХ. Младшие модели таких микрофонов не являются дорогими, их стоимость начинается от $60. Эти микрофоны работают как правило в частотном диапазоне 20-20000 Гц. В отдельных стендах можно использовать микрофонные капсюли с ровной АЧХ, их стоимость может начинаться и от 100-300 руб, но помимо капсюля, необходимо делать блок с фантомным питанием.


Reference Audio Analyzer представляет собой программно-аппаратный комплекс для анализа и генерации отчетов измерений аудиооборудования. Это уникальный софт и специализированные стенды для измерений и обработки данных.

Основными особенностями является формирование данных и графиков под обычных пользователей, отвечая на вопросы из повседневной практики, а не сугубо научных для инженеров и разработчиков. Это клиент-ориентированный подход под читателей журналов или покупателей магазинов с лаконичными данными и наглядными графиками.

В RAA собран 10-ти летний опыт тестирования различной аудиоаппаратуры, а основные зависимости между наушниками и усилителями базируются на измерениях более чем 500 моделей аудио продуктов и более сотни статей (iXBT.com, PersonalAudio, Doctorhead) с постоянной обратной связью с читателями. Развитие проекта RAA всегда основывалось на регулярном общении с читателями.

Reference Audio Analyzer является авторским проектом Кузнецова Романа, известного под псевдонимом romanrex.



Автор: (PAExpert) Эксперт Personalaudio.ru
20.12.2012


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Tupou Tani 14.08.2017 09:21:24 It Large 12 media times as a result we incorporate a estimate below in opposition to Texas Tech mind educate Kliff Klingsbury upon his previous QB Patrick Mahomes. Klingsbury incorporates explained pleasant factors concerning Mahomes and his healthy with the Chiefs ahead of and that proceeds right here Ramik Wilson Jersey. The speculate was questioned as a result of the Star Blair Kerkhoff (and I didn generate in the direction of Texas for Large 12 media times hence thank yourself Blair for inquiring this speculate). View the online video right here, check out the quotation less than.e definitely one particular of the simplest quarterback builders that league consists of at any time observed and in the direction of look at how a lot they desired Pat in the direction of leap up 17 areas toward take him,Klingsbury claimed by means of Fox Sports activities dot com. understood early upon within just our period that they enjoyed him considering that one particular of our prior coaches at this time performs there for the Chiefs https://www.thechiefsstore.com/85-James_Winchester_Jersey. They experienced been upon Pat the full season. In direction of include an confirmed quarterback who by means of all accounts is a drastically complicated personnel and Wonderful male inside Alex Smith in the direction of master against. Toward me it an excellent scenario. Patrick is merely 21 several years outdated. He selected up quarterback only his junior yr inside significant faculty hence the sky is the lower inside the instantly problem and the good thing is within just my feeling he landed inside of the best problem.o, did I precisely not consideration there was a past Texas Tech train and participant upon the Chiefs employees? I went during the Chiefs teaching employees bios and assistant defensive line train Mike Smith was at Texas Tech in opposition to 2013-15 AND performed there within university Demarcus Robinson Jersey. We shoulde discovered it coming.
Tupou Tani 14.08.2017 09:19:45 Sorry for not becoming consequently chaotic with this! I was not able in the direction of create contemporary article content for some purpose, and it been unbelievably tough acquiring one thing ewsdeserving. Primarily currently that PK is no lengthier the ESPN gentleman for the Titans. eporterslikely upon holidays way too impede locating constructive things, yet continue to, I include a undertaking in the direction of do listed here, and I should really contain stored up with even the luffparts. I comprise unsuccessful your self all. For that I am sorry. Okay. Let consider in the direction of it!Titans Inbound links!John Glennon (he life!) is reporting that Byard is prepared for further more all-hawkinginside his instant calendar year in just the NFL Tye Smith Jersey. The Titans signed the NFL simplest work preventing stability (for every PFF) for the duration of the offseason Whilst they inked Cyprien toward the workers. Cyprien electrical power in the direction of conclude the work ought to presently enable Byard in the direction of perform additional inside the heart sector. Byard himself suggests he believes the signing of Cyprien will cost-free him up, and that plan clever, he is aware of LeBeau is likely towards just take Cyprien nearer in the direction of the line of scrimmage. Don get hold of it improper despite the fact that https://www.titansteamproshop.com/73-Deangelo_Brown_Jersey. Byard doesn require in direction of turn into a just one dimensional participant. He claims he is normally ready in direction of move down and adhere his ose within just the grime and choose filthy.Quick Strike: Jim Wyatt mailbag.Off-time drama inform!!!! Offensive safeguard Sebastian Tretola was produced against the clinic the moment currently being grazed via a bullet. A bullet! What are oneself accomplishing, male? Security very first young children. STAYOUTTHEHOODTRETOLA. He endured a minimal gunshot wound towards his ankle/leg area. The Titans stated inside a assertion that they ended up mindful of the accident, and are grateful it was basically a very little problems. The accident happened out within just Arkansas, and the law enforcement are exploring the capturing. Tretola is additionally already engaged inside of a civil lawsuit along with Tajae Sharpe for allegedly attacking a gentleman through draft night time. Components are upon the up and up for Tretola! Simple Strike: 3 top secret exercising camp battles toward check Denzel Johnson Jersey.Wyatt is made up of been performing a reaking downsequence, and is at the moment upon his 5th out of 10...oops! Il connection in direction of the other 4 listed here, nevertheless for presently, let communicate relating to the newest local community he previews: the offensive line. The offensive line was wonderful ultimate year. Lewan, Spain, Jones, Kline, and Conklin all rocked it. There are a pair fresh faces together the line for detail, and some faces incorporate still left in the course of the offseason. Wyatt attle toward watchis Tretola vs. Levin...nonetheless one thing tells me Levin may possibly comprise a eg upupon the level of competition. Wyatt states in direction of preserve an eye upon Spain. Spain is made up of been a amazingly enjoyable speculate, and consists of performed a ideal task for the reason that currently being awarded a starting up point upon the line. Obtain Stuck Up!Breaking down the Quarterback place.Breaking down the Functioning Again issue.Breaking down the Broad Recipient situation.Breaking down the Restricted Close stage.That all for presently. Delighted looking at!
Tupou Tani 14.08.2017 09:18:35 What occurred with DB Jimmie Ward, in the direction of retain that harm?e did it within just our health try, which was unlucky for him and for us naturally. He tweaked it midway during it. I don, we don consider it was a finish pull or all the things, however we have to have towards be sensible and protected with it. Your self never ever realize with all those components how lengthy theyl acquire. Don consider it anything at all way too severe, however need to have in the direction of surely be safe and sound with it.Is S Jaquiski Tartt the person that actions within in the direction of both of individuals areas if S Eric Reid or Jimmie were being in the direction of transfer down?es, and wee attempting toward educate all of them together with that.What do yourself watch versus Jaquiski? believe that he occur a extended direction considering the fact that we 1st obtained listed here. He gotten into ideal form. He did that for the duration of step a person, 2 and a few. He arrived back again yesterday even within just superior form. I fairly thrilled regarding him. He a man who can work and strike and wee received in the direction of check out how he performs inside of the process and how prompt he can perform the moment he gets to be out there.Was LB Ahmad Brooks ok presently?rooks?Yeah.eah, Ahmad was Wonderful. He was Wonderful in direction of transfer and no mounted backs at all.It looked which includes LB Eli Harold was having a ton of the initial-staff members associates. Is that accurately a 30-one thing?eah, genuinely and towards inform oneself the fact, I wasn, Il watch as soon as I check out the tape, still that not everything I recognized. I wager it will be additional healthful against the entire prepare, however we don genuinely search at that as a great deal specifically by now, thus I wouldn generate a massive bundle of every little thing such as that.RB Tim Hightower is made up of type of flown down below the radar a minimal little bit. It appears to be like such as he was out there a bunch. There some inexperienced persons that yourself such as, yet this is a veteran that on your own comprehend perfectly. Are yourself seeking for him toward choose an likelihood?eah wee providing Tim as significantly of an prospect as all people else. Quite equivalent toward what [NBC Sporting activities Bay Local reporter] Matt [Maiocco] requested around Eli, we didn do all the things, there was very little alternative. It could include appeared including he was out there additional. Il look at the figures every time I buy within just, however it was the identical rotation that we experienced within just OTAs.On your own men obtained DL Solomon Thomas accomplished. How satisfied are yourself towards incorporate it performed and on top of that what the program for getting to be him provided?ee organized toward move tomorrow. If he would consist of gotten within a minimal little bit previous currently we would comprise experienced him transfer out there nowadays. Solomon a man who within just form. Il communicate toward [brain power physical fitness prepare] Ray Wright due to the fact he arrived out in the direction of the starting off of teach Reuben Foster Jersey, hence I comprehend Ray labored him out. I feel he took him for the duration of our health examine. Wee found Solomon. Wee recognized his physical exercises and things. He a male I believe that is inside of condition. At the time I chat in the direction of Ray, I believe hel verify that and I hope in the direction of watch him out there tomorrow.What have been your impressions of LB Reuben Foster? was energized. It was Excellent towards buy him out there, acquire him upon the industry. I comprehend he been chomping at the little bit for a When by now. It was Terrific towards view him move throughout it finish tempo, package with turning into aligned specifically and things. I feel he acquired an interception out there at present, which was very good for him. It was a favourable initial working day.Is the method for him toward energy at WILL or consideration at WILL and be cross-doing exercises at MIKE?es, yet that in which wee starting off him yet I can, wee moving in direction of incorporate near a ton of things. It a trouble we contain toward test toward uncover the great 53, the excellent 11 upon the business. Wee not transferring in direction of be legitimate frequent with that, still these days he surely obtained his associates at WILL linebacker.Pertaining to Hightower, he experienced the hurt and then it looked such as he was out of the NFL I imagine at minimal 3 or 4 yrs. On your own determine, alright wee by no means relocating towards pay attention against him yet again and then he returned. I comprehend yourself weren teaching him, yet did on your own believe Tim Hightower would no lengthier perform inside of the NFL? Was he even upon your radar? experienced Tim inside of Washington for 4 game titles and he did a genuine Great process for us inside individuals 4 video games and experienced a legitimate lousy hurt tearing his ACL. The following 12 months, the medical procedures or everything didn transfer straight. I fail to remember just what it was. It didn get rid of the instantly route. We arrived again upcoming yr and he finished up, on your own might explain to into camp that it simply wasn specifically https://www.49ersfansstoreonline.com/42-Rashard_Robinson_Jersey, as a result I imagine he acquired it redone. You consist of towards question him the very same tale of it, however he experienced in the direction of do it a pair of situations. I keep in mind each time I went towards Cleveland I tried out towards receive him out there for a exercise routine. I don feel I could possibly, still I truly tried out. I experimented with the similar in just Atlanta as well. Thus, he a man that wee been ready in the direction of appear to be at. I have to have towards say we may contain gotten him towards get the job done out, I imagine it took a whilst for his knee in direction of arrive back again. As a result, he hardly ever appeared such as the male I experienced. Naturally, Refreshing Orleans labored him out and he built their workers. Thus, Ie recognized him upon tape and Ie been taking part in towards him 2 times a yr for the final 2 a long time. Hence, Ie recognized him physical appearance Terrific. His knee fixed. Frequently every time yourself consider a several decades off or a handful of many years, whatsoever it was, and your knee is including that, it Quite tough toward arrive again. Nevertheless, if any individual appreciates Tim he a person on your own under no circumstances rely out.He gotten extremely higher marks for professionalism?eah, he as Terrific of a expert as Ie been near. I necessarily mean, it his activity and he snacks it such as that https://www.49ersfansstoreonline.com/15-Bruce_Ellington_Jersey. Yourself notice what youe relocating towards obtain in opposition to Tim each and every working day.T Joe Staley yesterday claimed that QB Brian Hoyer was one particular of the highest aggressive human beings he at any time been in the vicinity of inside of the NFL. Is that some thing that your self found in just Cleveland and how does that form of occur alone this year of calendar year each time youe simply just working towards?ust becoming near Brian, I believe Brian thinks inside himself. Brian demands an probability and that what he hunting for calendar year inside and yr out. For him in direction of arrive in this article, he moved his loved ones a bunch and towards arrive in this article, I recognize why he undertaking it due to the fact he demands an likelihood in direction of enjoy. He not a person who pleased with particularly sitting down upon the bench and staying a delicate backup. A good deal of human beings take such as that within this year of their job, yet not Brian. He demands toward enjoy. He requires in the direction of be out there and I feel gentlemen appear that. As soon as men recognize that men are carrying out every little thing they can towards just take inside of the match Ian Williams Jersey, consider inside of the fight, individuals are males humans answer in the direction of and participate in demanding for.There a great deal of chatter, in a natural way Brian signed a 2-calendar year package deal. These discuss with regards to the strategy that by yourself gentlemen don comprise a lengthy time period product at quarterback. How do your self believe he working with that and how unachievable is that point towards be inside for a person together with that? consider the a lot more youe within the league yourself purchase employed in direction of it John Theus Jersey. Practically everybody is within that predicament, no matter of what your deal states, gamers and coaches. Thus, I imagine the additional youe within just that predicament, yourself realize how in direction of offer with it. Brian is made up of been in the course of a great deal of difficult conditions. I feel he feels such as he within just a attractive optimistic a person directly presently. I don imagine any year within the league yourself can genuinely appear toward the long run for all people. Brian includes a superb probability this calendar year towards show that he can be our gentleman. On your own shift for the duration of a full period with him such as that and yourself do this with each and every participant and yourself generally comprise the long run within just head nevertheless your self can handle that. Youe bought toward consideration upon already and each time the year finishes and we all overview and we will look at what occurs. I merely realize that I joyful in direction of consist of him right here and I feel we contain a quarterback who delivers us a likelihood towards get.

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