Амплитудно-частотная характеристика усилителя

       

Амплитудно-частотная характеристика усилителя

Что такое амплитудно-частотная характеристика усилителя

График Амплитудно-частотной характеристики показывает баланс громкости частот. Если мы будем производить синус конкретной частоты и фиксировать уровень сигнала на выходе, то перебрав частоты с 20 Гц по 20 кГц - получим исходный график АЧХ.

Как правило, АЧХ усилителей представляет собой прямую, в редких случаях можно наблюдать подъем или спад в конкретной области частот (но такое бывает, например у Dr.Dac nano с повышением уровня низких частот).

При подключении наушников к усилителю, итоговая АЧХ меняется в соответствии с импедансом наушников и полного выходного сопротивления усилителя.

В целом, когда идет речь о изменении АЧХ усилителя или наушников, подразумевается суммарное общее изменение АЧХ, но в контексте изменение приписывается тому устройству, о котором изначально идет речь. Если говорим о усилителе, то подразумеваем изменение АЧХ усилителя, а если говорим о наушниках, то подразумеваем изменение АЧХ наушников.

Чем выше и ровнее импеданс наушников и чем ниже и ровнее сопротивление усилителя, тем меньше изменений происходит в АЧХ усилителя.

Характеристики АЧХ усилителя

Характеристики АЧХ усилителя

Обычно приводится частотный диапазон с допуском на отклонение. Некоторые производители не указывают допустимое отклонение и это вводит в заблуждение некоторых пользователей, считающих, что если верхняя частота равна 100 кГц, то на 101 кГц усилитель уже ничего не производит. На самом деле резкий обрыв АЧХ существует только для ЦАП-ов, а у усилителей начинается плавный спад. Делать выбор в сторону усилителя без спада до 100 кГц и выше не всегда разумно, т.к. если источник звука ЦАП – то выше определенных частот есть только ультразвук с искажениями от альясинга и усиливать их нет никакого смысла.

Частотный диапазон до 100 кГц с допуском в 1-3 дБ является хорошим показателем. Если в характеристиках на усилитель не указан допуск, то в лучшем случае подразумевается значение в 3 дБ, в остальных случаях эта цифра может быть любой.

Неравномерность АЧХ усилителя


Неравномерность АЧХ усилителя во многом перекликается с частотным диапазоном усилителя, но измеряется в ограниченном частотном диапазоне, например неравномерность в диапазоне 20 Гц – 20 кГц ± 0,7 дБ. А если измеряется рабочая полоса частот для определенного отклонения, то определяется частота, на которой это отклонение происходит и для отклонения 3 дБ частотный диапазон составит 15 Гц-56 кГц.
В отчетах измерений усилителей для наушников приводится неравномерность АЧХ.

Как измеряется АЧХ


Существует много способов для измерения АЧХ, одним из самых быстрых является мультитоновый сигнал, используемый в Audio Presition и RMAA. Помимо него можно измерять с помощью импульсного сигнала, скользящего синуса или шумового сигнала. Выбор сигнала зависит допусков на погрешность и скорости измерения.


Автор: (PAExpert) Эксперт Personalaudio.ru
27.12.2012


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